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TATA PIPESTata Pipes have been a pioneer in pipes making, meant for plumbing applications specifically. To meet the constantly increasing demand for quality pipes within the plumbing related and irrigationmore. Sree Revathi Steels We’ve been prominent distributor and investor of huge selection of GI Pipes, we have set benchmarks in the industrial sector and have got raised customer pubs satisfaction. Having said that, these GI Pipes were procured from esteemedmore probably. Pioneering function using cable beam electrodes technique carried out by Wang et al. Lee et al. MIC of alloys and metal in ultralow sulphur diesel, biodiesel and also their mixes. Klofutar and Golob reported that lack of water was among substantial requirements for microorganisms avoidance in fuels. From the well biodiesel blends showed an increased bacterial development and activity in comparison to neat diesel when dieselbiodiesel mixes were incubated with contaminated inoculation water collected from diesel storage space tanks. Furthermore, knowledge about microbes character that survive in biodiesel and the things that benefits how the biodiesel possesses they have its share of drawbacks. Corrosion was between the consequences of biodiesel compatibility problems probably. Biodiesels may type sediments or trigger corrosion when they touch construction components like carbon stainless steel, aluminium or steel which have been utilized for producing storage space pipes also, tanks as well as pumping equipment. Latter research has shown that biodiesel could accelerate corrosion of carbon steel used in manufacturing components like storage tanks besides pipelines of fuel infrastructure. Appear, there’s an increasing need for analysis for materials compatibility with biodiesel for its judicial application. For SEM research, coupons surface subjected to Compact disc and B100 check matrices for 100 h were chosen. Consequently, vouchers were exposed to 5 glutaraldehyde for eight h and subsequently cleaned using a graded series of ethanol for dehydration. From the well-known fact that the samples were as a result coated with a yellow metal alloy ahead of SEM observations. Although, whole surface coupon region was examined to find sessile bacteria. Environment problems over worsening polluting of the environment troubles caused by emissions from automobiles and depletion of fossil fuels possess forced us to get fuels like biodiesel which will supplement petrofuels.

Biodiesels have capability to retain water and provide a conducive environment for microbiologically influenced corrosion which may cause problems during storage, their use and transport. As a result this paper analyses bacteria influence around the corrosivity of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas on carbon steel using mass reduction technique. Carbon steel showed largest corrosion rates in B100 one and the various other in the presence and in lack of bacteria. Nonetheless, metal surface analysis was carried out using SEM. Commercially reachable carbon steel sheet was machined into vouchers of size 5 × 9 × three cm according to ASTM G184 and openings were drilled over the vouchers p centre. In general, carbon elemental structure steel has most likely been provided in Desk Jatropha curcas biodiesel was purchased from a biodiesel exporter in India and commercial diesel was bought from a nearby petrol bunk. It’s an interesting undeniable fact that the carbon steel pipe coupons were polished with 400, 800, 600 and grit emery paper and degreased using trichloroethylene. Accordingly the writers declare that for the most part there’s no turmoil of interests relating to this publication content. Shyamala and Malarvizhi Krishnamurthy. So it’s an open access article distributed under the Innovative Commons Attribution Permit, that permits unrestricted use, duplication, distribution besides in virtually any medium, provided original function can be cited. Which means pursuing 3 gasoline matrices were used as test mass media.

Authors would like to thank Avinashilingam government bodies Institute for House Science and ADVANCED SCHOOLING for Coimbatore 641 043, for, Ladies properly want India providing the needed services for carrying out this function. 2 bacterial strains had been isolated from the sediments formed inside a twoyearold jatropha biodiesel left over from a previous research. Initial 3 recognition bacterial strains attained indicated that isolates belonged to genus Bacillus sp. Amplification of focusing on bacterial 16S rRNA gene was performed using eubacterial 16S rRNA primers. I understand which the 16S rRNA gene was cloned and the isolated plasmids from clones were put through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Nevertheless, the sequences attained were matched with published sequences attainable in NCBI using BLAST previously. You should get this seriously. Series assessment and position revealed similarity with Bacillus pumilus. Actually the nucleotide series data been transferred in GenBank under accession amounts KF410588, KF410590. Bacillus varieties constitute a diverse band of bacterias broadly distributed in soil and aquatic environment. While belonging or fishing rod designed towards the genus Bacillus even, bacillus pumilus provides most likely been a ‘grampositive’, endospore forming bacterias.

Bacillus pumilus resides in soils and some colonise in some root area plants. Without removal of corrosion items for the metal surface, figure two displays carbon SEM micrographs steel in CD and B100 in experimental system after exposure to the bacterial system. It implies that coupons were covered with thick and lumpy corrosion items generally. Furthermore, biodiesels had been always fatty acidity methyl esters created from veggie oils by way of a procedure famous as transesterification. Ok, and one of the most significant parts now. Biodiesel undergoes degradation through wetness attack, absorption, oxidation and by microorganisms during storage or use and proven to be more corrosive. This is where it starts getting entertaining really, right? One and the additional petroleum diesel and biodiesel generally were oftentimes contaminated with microorganisms.

Water continues to be essential parts for microbial development to occur. Water enters into fuel system during production, transportation and storage. Definitely it’s rather ugh to eliminate water from energy systems notably when blended with biodiesel since biodiesels were most likely even more hygroscopic than petroleum diesel. Maruthamuthu et al, while investigating corrosion issues in petroleum product pipeline. 3 corrosivity samples of biodiesels on light steel was examined by Meenakshi et al. NaCl way to depict water contaminants. Aktas et al. Water condenses and collects at fuel bottom tanks or pipes and causes microbial growth leading to the formation of sediments, sludge and slime resulting in gasoline deterioration and corrosion which normally takes place beneath the producing biomass. Microbiologically influenced corrosion can be an assured problem in biodiesel handling facilities most likely. As a total result, few works are accessible on this pic within the books. Oftentimes the security alarm over fossil fuel depletion, energy, greenhouse gas emissions or security provides necessitated alternative development alternative energy sources for which biodiesels hold big guarantee.

Besides having a positive energy balance, use of biodiesel in conventional diesel engine leads to substantial reduced amount of unburned particulate, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons issues. Today all countries world-wide including people that have surplus energy are banking upon biodiesel as an alternative power source. India has realized tremendous potential for biodiesel and increased its focus on biodiesel creation. Under Indian circumstances, 1 nonedible vegetation Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata are used for biodiesel production widely. Of 1 1, jatropha was identified as most suitable one since it has been a herb of tropics with lofty oil content and it could withstand extreme drought circumstances. Corrosion studies involving Bacillus pumilus are limited. Seriously. Bolton et al. Having said that, bacillus pumilus isolated from examples taken from corroding galvanised steel pipes conveying water on steel corrosion and galvanised steel. It is outcomes demonstrated that Bacillus pumilus experienced elevated zinc corrosion galvanised steel but didn’t increase corrosion price of steel.

Bacterial molecular identification isolates was done by 16S rRNA sequencing. Genomic DNA were isolated in the bacterial strains, amplified by polymerase chain reaction using general 16S rRNA cloned, sequenced and primers with dideoxy nucleotide. I understand the sequences obtained were matched using the previously published sequences reachable in civil Centre for Biological Information using BLAST. From the well-known idea that the deposit on the container bottom developing a ’3 year old’ sample of Jatropha curcas biodiesel was collected in a sterile box. Collected sample was serially diluted using sterile distilled water. Considering above said. It’s therefore inoculated on agar moderate by pour dish technique and incubated for 2448″ hours. However, petri plates having countable colonies ranging from 30 to 300 most likely were chosen for enumeration and counted. Carbon corrosion rates steel in 4 check matrices in the control and experimental systems as dependant on mass loss method most likely had been depicted in Figure It was generally obvious that carbon steel shows the biggest corrosion prices in B100 all in the control and in experimental systems associated with CD, B5 or B carbon corrosion prices steel in B100 in charge and experimental systems have been 69 ± 3731 mpy and 70 ± 1386 mpy.

a couple of studies show that corrosion of metals in biodiesel always was higher than that in petrodiesel and this may be because of water presence content, free essential fatty acids and also unconverted monoalkyl esters It is noted the corrosion rate increases with increasing concentration of biodiesel in the blends. Biodiesel corrosivity blends has been searched with achievement for to become lesser in comparison to that of petrodiesel only. Identical craze was noticed by Ambrozin et al carbon corrosion rates steel in all 4 gas matrices found in this research were appeared for to be lesser in the presence of Bacillus pumilus compared to control program and a proclaimed difference most likely was noticed in carbon corrosion rates steel in B100 between your control and experimental systems. Which means this might be because of a protective development film/biofilm on the surface of carbon steel where biological activities improve atmosphere conditions at the metal/remedy interface which might result in reduced amount of corrosion prices in the current presence of bacterias. Studies show that a variety of strains of bacteria like Staphylococcus Sp. Pseudomonas cichorii produced corrosion inhibiting biofilm on gentle steel.


More often than not, authors in this subject tend to be quite
sophisticated in their treatment of the various issues involved. The term research, which most authors used in their writings on this subject matter appears advanced and difficult, if not ambiguous, to many students in our tertiary institutions today.

Yet, every prospective graduate in our universities, polytechnics and
colleges of education has an obligation towards project writing as one of the key requirements for the award of certificates. This is against the odd of the unfortunate reality of very weak academic background of such students from the secondary school. Such a weak background probably accounted for the huge tendency, among prospective graduates in tertiary institutions, having preference for copious and unscrupulous duplication of other people’s project works from libraries.
This unfortunate practice has become so prevalent among all categories of students to such an extent that stakeholders in the educational development of Nigeria cannot continue to ignore. This book, therefore, intends to treat the subject of project writing from not just a practical perspective, which had already been done by several books in this area, but more importantly to present it from a rudimentary approach, seeking a basic understanding of the necessary skills required for its successful completion.

It is the belief of this author that the very advanced nature of
presentation adopted by most research methodology writers has helped to discourage many students from seeking a genuine understanding of this easy subject matter. Situations whereby the supervisor himself is hardly experienced enough in this skill further compound this problem. Being an old student of research methodology; both theoretically and practically and coupled with long experience of serving in research-related committees in both the university and the polytechnic systems for over a decade now, this author has come to the conclusion that basic approach to
project writing would be the much long awaited antidotes to this seemingly intractable cankerworm. Hence, the desirability and ample justification for this text.


The study aimed at establishing the effects of overpopulation on the academic performance of government secondary schools. It is designed to identify the factors that contribute to the increase in students’ population, find out the students – teacher ratio in government secondary schools and also the impact of the increase on the academic performance of students. A descriptive survey design was used, while the population of the study consists of government owned secondary schools in Owerri educational zone. A simple random sampling technique was used to select the four (4) schools out of the nine (9) schools in the zone. The four secondary schools selected have a total population of five thousand five hundred and thirty (5530) students and eighty (80) teachers. The sample size consists of five hundred and fifty four (554) students and eight (8) teachers. Data were represented in a tabular form. A closed format questionnaire with four points likert rating scale was used for data collection, and the mean score were used in analyzing the responses of the research questions. As a result of this research work it was found out that the students – teacher ratio in government secondary schools is between 55 – 60 students per teacher. Some recommendations were made, which include that the ministry of education should give quota on the students enrollment in government secondary schools in order to reduce the number of students per teacher, and infrastructural facilities should be provided to the schools in rural areas in order to avoid students’ migration to the urban areas.


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As part of our efforts in encouraging Nigerian Graduates who successfully conducted good research works (projects/ theses) upon graduation, Nigerian Graduates’ Journal is calling for the submission of research papers to be published online for free.

Note: The author must be a Graduate and is expected to have “defended” the work in his/her host University/institution. Publication starts January 2014.

Please visit or contact for more information or inquiries.

Dr. Hosam Faisal

For Nigerian Graduates’ Journal.